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Welcome to Mexico-Herps.com!

WEBSITE UNDER CONSTRUCTION
I’m glad you found your way to my website! It is the first comprehensive introduction to the herpetofauna of Mexico anywhere (yes, anywhere!). I’m still trying to figure out what kind of format I want to stick with, so please don’t be put off by the “un-professional” appearance of the site. I am constantly working on updating the photos, maps, and any information contained within this site to be as accurate as possible in the ever-changing world of Mexican Herpetology. If you see something missing or in error please feel free to e-mail me and bring it to my attention!

The taxonomy contained within might not mirror that you are used to, or even comply with what is generally accepted at this point in time; I have my opinions on certain subjects and will almost always explain my reasons for “changing” name combinations within the species’ accounts. Also, for accounts that do not include photographs I have inserted a simple “(NP)” after the scientific name of the taxa in question. This will hopefully become less common as I “fill in the blanks” every trip down south! NAVIGATION NOTE: When you select a Genus (Sceloporus for example), a list of species’ names will appear. Click on a name for the species account; above and below the species’ names in small font is the word “Previous” or “Next” – “Previous” takes you to the next group of species names for that Genus (alphabetical order), at which point “Next” will take you back. I know it’s backwards, and I’m going to figure out a way to navigate in a more sensible fashion, please give me time.

NEW:
11/15/2011 – Thorius Genus structure updated.
11/15/2011 – Lithobates Genus structure updated.
11/15/2011 – Eleutherodactylus Genus structure updated.
11/15/2011 – Craugastor Genus structure updated.
11/15/2011 – Anaxyrus Genus structure updated.
11/15/2011 – Rhinella Genus structure updated.
11/15/2011 – Incilius Genus structure updated.
11/6/2006 – Plectrohyla ephemera account
11/9/2006 – 62 new or updated distribution maps uploaded.
Uma maps and Genus structure updated.
Abronia maps and Genus structure updated.
Conopsis maps and Genus structure updated.
Conopsis acuta account
Conopsis amphisticha account
Conopsis biserialis account
Conopsis lineata account
Conopsis megalodon account
Conopsis nasus account
11/13/2006 – Plectrohyla miahuatlanensis account
Bromeliohyla Genus structure updated
Charadrahyla Genus structure updated
Ecnomiohyla Genus structure updated
Exerodonta Genus structure updated
Megastomatohyla Genus structure updated
Plectrohyla Genus structure updated
Ptychohyla Genus structure updated
Smilisca Genus structure updated
Tlalocohyla Genus structure updated
11/14/2006 – Exerodonta species accounts updated
Dendropsophus Genus structure updated
Hyla Genus structure updated
Trachycephalus Genus structure updated
11/16/2006 – 37 new or updated distribution maps uploaded
Bromeliohyla maps uploaded
Charadrahyla maps uploaded
Ecnomiohyla maps uploaded
Megastomatohyla maps uploaded
Some Exerodonta and Plectrohyla maps uploaded
Craugastor Genus structure updated
11/20/2006 – Accounts for Thorius grandis, T. infernalis and T. omiltemi.
01/26/2007 – 261 New or Updated range-maps uploaded
01/28/2007 – Crotaphytus antiquus and Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus accounts
01/31/2007 – Tantilla cascadae account
Tantilla coronadoi account
Tantilla yaquia account
Procineura Genus structure updated
Sonora Genus structure updated
02/08/2007 – Ambystoma altamirani account
Ambystoma amblycephalum account
Ambystoma andersoni account
Ambystoma bombypellum account
Ambystoma dumerilii account
Ambystoma flavipiperatum account
Ambystoma granulosum account
Ambystoma leorae account
Ambystoma lermaense account
Ambystoma mexicanum account
Ambystoma ordinarium account
Ambystoma rivulare account
03/15/2007 – Ambystoma taylori account
07/19/2007 – Eleutherodactylus galacticorhinus account
12/02/2007 – Plectrohyla ameibothalame account
Plectrohyla celata account
Pseudoeurycea Genus structure updated; all distribution maps uploaded
12/07/2007 – Lepidophyma Genus structure updated; all distribution maps uploaded
Lepidophyma chicoasense account
Lepidophyma dontomasi account
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum account
Lepidophyma gaigeae account
Lepidophyma lineri account
Lepidophyma lipetzi account
Lepidophyma lowei account
Lepidophyma micropholis account
Lepidophyma occulor account
Lepidophyma pajapanense account
Lepidophyma radula account
01/18/2008 – Lepidophyma smithii account
Lepidophyma Sp. Nov. account
Lepidophyma sylvaticum account
Lepidophyma tarascae account
Lepidophyma tuxtlae account
01/19/2008 – Crotaphytus antiquus account
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi account
Crotaphytus collaris fuscus account
Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus account
Crotaphytus dickersonae account
Crotaphytus grismeri account
Crotaphytus insularis account
Crotaphytus nebrius account
Crotaphytus reticulatus account
Crotaphytus vestigium account
01/21/2008 – Anniella geronimensis account
Anniella pulchra pulchra account
Petrosaurus mearnsi account
Petrosaurus repens account
Petrosaurus slevini account
Petrosaurus thalassinus account

I guess I should quickly introduce myself: my name is Timothy Burkhardt. I’m 32 years old and have been an extremely avid amateur herpetologist since I was old enough to stand on two legs. At age 13 I decided that being the first person to see every species and subspecies of reptile and amphibian in the United States would be a pretty cool goal. At this point all I had to go by was my little green Audubon Guide to North American reptiles and amphibs and an insatiable thirst for new information and outdoor experience.
At age 14 I had acquired two new field guides: Robert C. Stebbins’ book on the west and the Conant & Collins book on the eastern portions of the United States. I spent countless hours reading these and other wonderful books such as Wright & Wright’s “Handbook of Frogs and Toads” (of North America), and Karl Kauffeld’s inspirational “Snakes and Snake Hunting”. For Christmas that year I asked for Smith & Smith’s “Synopsis of the Herpetofauna of Mexico: Vol. VI: Testudines” (Turtles). At that point I became fascinated with the reptiles and amphibians of Mexico.
Even though I lived a mere 20 miles from the border, Mexico seemed distant and mystical – a land full of amazing new species I had only seen at the San Diego Zoo or in old black and white photos in my books. My parents, who were so amazingly supportive of my interest in herpetology, would drive me all around San Diego and Imperial Counties and even to Arizona but they drew the line at visiting Mexico. Throughout my teen years I tried and tried to find someone in the San Diego Herpetological Society or San Diego Natural History Museum who would take me down with them, but everyone I talked to was afraid to go down themselves, letalone with their personal vehicle.
Long story short, in December of 2001 I finally made my first trip south of the border in the form of a quick trip to northern Baja California. Even though we spent only a few days there, I soon realized I was hooked. Beginning in June, 2002 I began taking longer trips generally several weeks in duration to different regions in Mexico, progressing farther south each time. During these trips I took few photos, and what I did photograph I did so very poorly. It wasn’t until 2004 that I bought myself a digital camera and really began trying to take quality pictures that I could share with my fellow herp enthusiasts.
Starting in 2003 I began dedicating the vast majority of my money and time to learning about the herps of Mexico. My herping adventures in the USA came to a virtual standstill and it became “all about south of the ‘ol border!” In 2003 and 2005 my friends and I discovered two new species of chirping frogs (Syrrhophus) in Mexico; we have yet to describe these but are working on that at this point in time.

I hope you enjoy checking out my photos and reading about my experiences in the field. Please check back often for updates. If you are interested in purchasing photographs please e-mail me at Triprionco@aol.com and I will be happy to discuss it with you. Thank you and enjoy! Sincerely,
Tim

WEBSITE UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Mexico Political Map
Political Map of the Country of Mexico

Cloud ForestLago de las MinasHyla pentheterBasaseachicP taurus MDrymobius margaritiferus margaritiferus

Crotalus willardi obscurus

obscurus
Adult, 6,000′, Hidalgo County, New Mexico
obscurus
Adult, 6,000′, Hidalgo County, New Mexico
head
Close-Up of Head
head
Close-Up of Head

ANIMAS RIDGE-NOSED RATTLESNAKE
Crotalus willardi – Meek 1905
Crotalus willardi obscurus – Harris 1974

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
In Mexico, this rattlesnake is found only in the Sierra San Luis of Sonora and Chihuahua; it also occurs in the United States in the Animas and Peloncillo Mountains.

Crotalus willardi obscurus Map

HABITAT:
Peloncillos
Madrean Woodland Habitat, 6,000′, Hidalgo County, New Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:
I am extremely fortunate to have seen this snake once, in the Peloncillo Mountains of Hidalgo County, New Mexico. In August, 2005 two friends and I made a spur of the moment trip to this range on the slight chance we would see an obscurus, and obviously it worked out well for us! It took us a mere 45 minutes of poking around to locate this beautiful adult snake. Other species found the same day in this area were Sceloporus virgatus, Urosaurus ornatus, Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda, and Crotalus molossus molossus.

CONSERVATION STATUS:
In the United States, this snake is strictly protected on a federal level. Populations in both the United States and Mexico are stable, and it appears that there is no immediate concern as to the existance of this snake in the wild. It’s limited geographic distribution and supposed threat of rampant collection are the reasons for obscurus to be protected in the U.S.

REFERENCES:
Campbell, J. A. and W. W. Lamar. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York, 870 pp.

Geophis semidoliatus

Geophis semidoliatus
Adult, 200′, Veracruz, Mexico
Geophis semidoliatus
Adult and Neonates, 200′, Veracruz, Mexico

CORAL EARTH SNAKE
Geophis semidoliatus – Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Geophis semidoliatus Map

HABITAT:
bananas
Banana Grove Habitat, 200′, Veracruz, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

REFERENCES:

Agalychnis moreleti

Agalychnis moreletii
Adult Male, 4,500′, Oaxaca, Mexico
Agalychnis moreletii
Adult Male, 4,500′, Oaxaca, Mexico
Agalychnis moreletii
Inactive Adult Male, 4,500′, Oaxaca, Mexico

MORELET’S LEAF FROG
Agalychnis moreletii – Dumeril 1853

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Historically, Agalychnis moreletii is found in several widely-disjunct regions of southern Mexico; In Puebla it is known from the Sierra Norte, in Veracruz from Cuautlapan and the Los Tuxtlas region, in Oaxaca from the Sierra Juarez and Sierra Miahuatlan, from Chiapas in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Tapilula/Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacan, and in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero. Elevational distribution from 300-1500 m.

Agalychnis moreletii Map

HABITAT:
Vista Hermosa
Tropical Montane Habitat, 4,500′, Oaxaca, Mexico
Agalychnis Pond
Man-Made Oviposition Site, 4,500′, Oaxaca, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:

Described as Hyla moreletii by Dumeril (1853). Syntypes: MNHNP 428. Type locality: “Vera-Paz”, Guatemala; corrected to “Coban in [Departamento Alta] Vera Paz, Guatemala” by Kellogg (1932).
PERSONAL NOTES:
On the night of July 8, 2005 I had the good fortune to discover this species calling from around an old well near Vista Hermosa, Sierra Juarez, Oaxaca. Three males were giving half-hearted vocalizations while perched on cattails about 3-4′ above the water. One Smilisca cyanosticta was also calling from a floating position in the well. On a forested slope nearby, what I believe to be Anotheca spinosa called sporadically. There was no rain on this evening.
Also of note was the fact that the well was full of nearly transformed, as well as 50% grown Agalychnis tadpoles. This indicates that A. moreleti has a lengthy breeding season.
In July, 2006 I returned to Vista Hermosa with Jesse Delia to survey for montane stream-breeders. We camped at the Agalychnis moreleti breeding site and found many adult animals around the well. Also seen were several egg masses attached to cattails above the waters edge as well as tadpoles of all stages of development.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
IUCN Red List status for this species is “Critically Endangered” due to a projected population decline of 80% over the next ten years due to habitat loss and infection with the Chytrid fungus; surveyors in the states of Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico reported this species extirpated from all sites they visited. (In July, 2005 I found an extant breeding population in the Sierra Juarez of Oaxaca – photographed above).
REFERENCES:
Faivovich, J., C. F. B. Haddad, P. C. A. Garcia, D. R. Frost, J. A. Campbell, and W. C. Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294:1-240.
Lips, K. R., J. R. Mendelson 3rd, A. Munoz-Alonso, L. Canseco-Marquez and D. G. Mulcahy. 2004. Amphibian population declines in montane southern Mexico: resurveys of historical localities. Biological Conservation 119(2004):555-564.

Rhinella marina

marinus
Adult, 1000′, Tamaulipas, Mexico
marinus sub
Sub-Adult, 300′, Oaxaca, Mexico
marinus vent
Venter
juv marinus
Juvenile, 200′, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

MARINE TOAD
Rhinella marina – Linnaeus 1758

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:

victoria
Tropical Lowland Habitat, 300′, Tamaulipas, Mexico
tuxtlas
Rain Forest Habitat, 750′, Sierra de los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico
Oaxaca
Habitat, 500′, Oaxaca, Mexico
guerrero
Pacific Lowland Habitat, 100′, Guerrero, Mexico
matias
Temporary Pond Oviposition Site, 500′, Oaxaca, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Rhinophrynus dorsalis

Rhinophrynus ATL
Adult Male, Atlantic Versant Color Variant, 500′, Oaxaca, Mexico
Rhinophrynus PAC
Adult Male, Pacific Versant Color Variant, 100′, Oaxaca, Mexico
Rhinophrynus odd PAC
Adult Male, Pacific Versant Aberrant, 100′, Oaxaca, Mexico
Rhinophrynus amplexus
Adults in Amplexus, 200′, Oaxaca, Mexico
Spade
Close-Up of Hind Foot Spade, an Effective Burrowing Tool

MEXICO BURROWING TOAD
Rhinophrynus dorsalis – Dumeril & Bibron 1841

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

R. dorsalis is found from the United States to Costa Rica. In Mexico it occurs on both coasts: on the Pacific from the mouth of the Rio Balsas in Guerrero to the Guatemala border in Chiapas; on the Atlantic from the Rio Grande (Texas border) south along the gulf lowlands through the Yucatan Peninsula to Guatemala and Belize. Elevational distribution from sea level to 500 m.
Rhinophrynus dorsalis Map

HABITAT:
matias
Temporary Pond Oviposition Site, 500′, Oaxaca, Mexico
guerrero
Pacific Lowland Habitat, 100′, Guerrero, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:

The sole member of the family Rhinophrynidae. Populations of this frog on the Atlantic and Pacific versants of Mexico display distinct differences in color – Pacific animals being yellow and black, while Atlantic animals are orange/red and black. Further investigation in geographic variation within R. dorsalis may reveal the presence of unnamed species.
TYPE:
Described as Rhinophrynus dorsalis by Dumeril and Bibron (1841). Holotype: MNHNP 693. Type locality: “Vera-Cruz”, Mexico.
PERSONAL NOTES:
In July, 2005 I had the good fortune in finding my first breeding choruses of R. dorsalis in the Atlantic foothills of Oaxaca, Mexico. The combined calls coming from a roadside pond was absolutely eerie, and unnerved my hunting partner a bit. The frogs called from floating positions along waters’ edge, usually from within mats of floating grass cuttings. Other species calling from this pond were Trachycephalus venulosus, Scinax staufferi, Smilisca baudinii, and Leptodactylus melanonotus.
A few nights later, on the coast of Oaxaca (Hwy 200) we were lucky enough to witness a mass breeding migration of Rhinophrynus. Intense thunderstorm activity had ocurred earlier in the evening, and the road was swarming with R. dorsalis, Triprion, Incilius, and several other species of amphibians. Every roadside ditch from Salina Cruz to Huatulco seemed to have R. dorsalis calling from it’s muddy water, and in some places the road was covered with so many individuals that it was impossible to miss them all. Many Rhinophrynus were crossing the road while in amplexus (see photo above). Thankfully traffic was light on this evening, reducing the number of amphibians killed on the highway.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
IUCN Red List status is currently that of “Least Concern” due to this species’ wide geographic distribution, tolerance of a wide variety of habitats (including those modified by humans) and a presumed large, stable worldwide population.
REFERENCES:

Heloderma horridum horridum

Heloderma_horridum_horridum
Adult, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico
Heloderma_head
Close-up of head

MEXICO BEADED LIZARD
Heloderma horridum – Wiegmann 1829
Heloderma horridum horridum – Wiegmann 1829

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:

Mazatlan
Habitat, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico
Oaxaca
Habitat, 500′, Oaxaca, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Dipsosaurus catalinensis

Dipsosaurus_catalinensis
Adult, courtesy of the Serpentario de La Paz

ISLA SANTA CATALINA IGUANA
Dipsosaurus catalinensis – Van Denburgh 1922

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Leptophis ahaetulla praestans

NORTHERN GREEN PARROT SNAKE
Leptophis ahaetulla – Linnaeus 1758
Leptophis ahaetulla praestans – Cope 1868

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Crocodylus acutus

Crocodylus_acutus
Adult, 50′, Nayarit, Mexico

AMERICAN CROCODILE
Crocodylus acutus – Cuvier 1807

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:

San_Blas
Habitat, 50′, Nayarit, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Trimorphodon tau tau

Trimorphodon_tau_Neo
Neonate, 1,600′, Sonora, Mexico

TROPICAL LYRE SNAKE
Trimorphodon tau – Cope 1870
Trimorphodon tau tau – Cope 1870

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Mazatlan
Habitat, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Thamnophis marcianus marcianus

Thamnophis_marcianus_AZ
Adult, 4,200′, Cochise Co., Arizona

CHECKERED GARTER SNAKE
Thamnophis marcianus – Baird & Girard 1853
Thamnophis marcianus marcianus – Baird & Girard 1853

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
San_Bernardino_Vly
Chihuahua Grassland Habitat, Cochise Co., Arizona

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:
I have never seen this species in Mexico; however, I have seen them very commonly in the Chihuahuan Grassland north of Agua Prieta in the San Bernardino Valley of Cochise County, Arizona. They are often seen after thunderstorms, foraging on the roads at night.

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Terrapene ornata luteola

Terrapene_ornata_luteola
Adult, 4,000′, Sonora, Mexico
Terrapene_ornata_luteola
Adult, 4,000′, Sonora, Mexico

DESERT BOX TURTLE
Terrapene ornata – Agassiz 1857
Terrapene ornata luteola – Smith & Ramsey 1952

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
San_Bernardino_Vly
Chihuahua Grassland Habitat, Cochise Co., Arizona

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:
I have seen this turtle twice in Sonora, Mexico. The first was in 2002 on the Cuota Hwy north of Magdalena, in an area of mixed Sinaloa Thornscrub and Upper Sonoran Desert. The second individual was seen in July, 2003 on the highway about 15 miles south of Agua Prieta in a very dry Chihuahua Grassland environment. The latter turtle is pictured above.

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Tantilla hobartsmithi

Tantilla_hobartsmithi
Adult, 3,600′, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona
Tantilla_hobartsmithi
Venter

SOUTHWESTERN BLACK-HEADED SNAKE
Tantilla hobartsmithi – Taylor 1936

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:
I have little experience with this species; none of it having been in Mexico. The snake pictured above was found in Madera Canyon the night before we departed to Mexico on a two-week excursion. It was crawling through the dry streambed in the lower canyon, and was extremely active.

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:
McDiarmid, R. W. 1968. Variation, Distribution and Systematic Status of the Black-Headed Snake Tantilla yaquia Smith. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 67(3):159-177.

Sympholis lippiens

Sympholis_lippiens
Adult found hit on road, 1,300′, Sonora, Mexico

MEXICO SHORT-TAILED SNAKE
Sympholis lippiens – Cope 1861

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:
In August, 2002 we were fortunate in finding several Sympholis on the Alamos-Navojoa Hwy, Sonora. All but one seen by our field party were DOR. Unfortunately, the single AOR snake escaped it’s temporary holding container before it could be photographed. Most Sympholis were found in a 10 mile stretch of the lower end (Sinaloa Thornscrub habitat) of the Alamos Rd.

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Procineura aemula

Procineura_aemula
Adult found hit on road, 1,200′, Sonora, Mexico

FILE-TAILED GROUND SNAKE
Procineura aemula – Cope 1879

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:
In August, 2002 I was fortunate to find this snake during a trip to Sonora, Mexico. It was dusk, and a massive thunderstorm was approaching from the east while we drove toward Alamos from the town of Navajoa. This small snake was seen writhing, just having been hit by the car in front of us. It appeared distinctly pinkish on the asphalt, unlike any other snake I have seen before. Later that evening, in the same general area we missed a similarly-sized, pinkish snake that I am sure was another example of this species. Unfortunately, the specimen was in poor shape when photographed in the garage of our hotel that evening.

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Sceloporus sp. “Mazatlan”

Sceloporus_sp_Mazatlan
Adult, Sea Level, Sinaloa, Mexico
Venter
Venter of above individual

SPINY LIZARD
Sceloporus sp. – “horridus albiventris”?

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima rogerbarbouri

Rhinoclemmys_Juvie
Juvenile, Colima, Mexico (Courtesy of Jacobo)
Rhinoclemmys_Juvie
Plastron of above individual

WESTERN MEXICO WOOD TURTLE
Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima – Gray 1855
Rhinoclemmys pulcharrima rogerbarbouri – Ernst 1978

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Creek
Seasonal Creek Habitat, 1,700′, Sonora, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Rhinocheilus lecontei antonii

Rhinocheilus_lecontei_antonii
Adult, 1,600′, Sonora, Mexico

MEXICO LONG-NOSED SNAKE
Rhinocheilus lecontei – Baird & Girard 1853
Rhinocheilus lecontei antonii – Duges 1886

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

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REFERENCES:

Phyllodactylus browni fortitus

Phyllorhynchus_browni_fortitus
Adult, 1,400′, Sonora, Mexico (2002)
P_browni_fortitus
Same individual as above

SONORA LEAF-NOSED SNAKE
Phyllorhynchus browni – Stejneger 1890
Phyllorhynchus browni fortitus – Bogert & Oliver 1956

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Rcho_Acosta
Tropical Thornscrub Habitat, 1,800′, Sonora, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Oxybelis aeneus

Oxybelis_aeneus
Adult, 200′, Jalisco, Mexico

BROWN VINE SNAKE
Oxybelis aeneus – Wagler 1824

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Masticophis mentovarius striolatus

Juvenile_Masticophis
Neonate, 1,800′, Sonora, Mexico
Juvenile_Masticophis
Neonate, 1,800′, Sonora, Mexico

MEXICO WHIPSNAKE
Masticophis mentovarius –
Masticophis mentovarius striolatus –

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Bahia_San_Carlos
Habitat, 100′, Sonora, Mexico
Rcho_Acosta
Tropical Thornscrub Habitat, 1,800′, Sonora, Mexico
Mazatlan
Habitat, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Leptophis diplotropis diplotropis

Leptophis_diplotropis
Adult, 1,800′, Sonora, Mexico
Leptophis_diplotropis
Adult in defensive posture with rear-fangs visible, 1,800′, Sonora, Mexico

PACIFIC COAST PARROT SNAKE
Leptophis diplotropis – Gunther 1872
Leptophis diplotropis diplotropis – Gunther 1872

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

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Leptodeira punctata

Leptodeira_punctata
Adult, 600′, Sinaloa, Mexico
Leptodeira_punctata
Same individual as above

SPOTTED CAT-EYED SNAKE
Leptodeira punctata – Peters 1867

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Mazatlan
Habitat, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico

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TYPE:

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REFERENCES:

Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae

Lampropeltis_triangulum_annulata
Adult, 1,600′, Sonora, Mexico

SINALOA MILKSNAKE
Lampropeltis triangulum – Lacepede 1788
Lampropeltis triangulum sinaloae – Williams 1978

IDENTIFICATION:

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Kinosternon sp. “Chihuahua”

Kinosternon_sp
Adult, 6,500′, Chihuahua, Mexico (2002)
Kinosternon_sp
Carapace of Adult, 6,500′, Chihuahua, Mexico (2002)
Kinosternon_sp
Plastron of Adult, 6,500′, Chihuahua, Mexico (2002)

MUD TURTLE
Kinosternon sp. –

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Creek
Pine-Forest Habitat, 6,500′, Chihuahua, Mexico
Creek
Pine-Forest Habitat, 6,500′, Chihuahua, Mexico

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Imantodes gemmistratus latistratus

Imantodes_gemmistratus_latistratus
Adult, 1,000′, Sinaloa, Mexico

RED BLUNT-HEADED TREE SNAKE
Imantodes gemmistratus – Cope 1861
Imantodes gemmistratus latistratus – Cope 1887

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Mazatlan
Habitat, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico

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TYPE:

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Gyalopion quadrangulare

Gyalopion_quadrangulare
DOR Adult, 1,200′, Sonora, Mexico

THORNSCRUB HOOK-NOSED SNAKE
Gyalopion quadrangulare – Gunther 1893

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Mazatlan
Habitat, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico

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TYPE:

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Drymarchon corais erebennus

TEXAS INDIGO SNAKE
Drymarchon corais –
Drymarchon corais erebennus –

IDENTIFICATION:

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Drymarchon corais rubidus

Drymarchon_corais_rubidus
DOR Neonate, 2,400′, Sinaloa, Mexico

RED-TAILED CRIBO
Drymarchon corais – Boie 1827
Drymarchon corais rubidus – Smith 1941

IDENTIFICATION:

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Boa constrictor imperator

Boa
Juvenile, 1,600′, Sonora, Mexico
Boa
Adult, 1,800′, Sonora, Mexico

MEXICO BOA CONSTRICTOR
Boa constrictor – Linnaeus 1758
Boa constrictor imperator – Daudin 1803

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Bahia_San_Carlos
Habitat, 100′, Sonora, Mexico
Mazatlan
Habitat, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

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TYPE:

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REFERENCES:

Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatus

Agkistrodon_bilineatus_Nayarit
Adult, 200′, Nayarit, Mexico (2003)
Agkistrodon_Head
Close-up of head
Agkistrodon_bilineatus
Same individual as above

MEXICO CANTIL
Agkistrodon bilineatus – Gunther 1863
Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatus – Gunther 1863

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatus Map

HABITAT:

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TYPE:

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REFERENCES:
Campbell, J. A. and W. W. Lamar. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York, 870 pp.

Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii

Sistrurus_catenatus_edwardsi
Adult, Jim Hogg Co., Texas
Sistrurus_catenatus_edwardsi
Adult, Jim Hogg Co., Texas

DESERT MASSASAUGA
Sistrurus catenatus – Rafinesque 1818
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii – Baird & Girard 1853

IDENTIFICATION:

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Sceloporus teapensis

SOUTHERN ROSE-BELLIED LIZARD
Sceloporus teapensis – Gunther 1890

IDENTIFICATION:

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Sceloporus variabilis marmoratus

Sceloporus_variabilis_marmoratus_Female
Adult Female, 2,000′, Tamaulipas, Mexico

NORTHERN ROSE-BELLIED LIZARD
Sceloporus variabilis – Wiegmann 1834
Sceloporus variabilis marmoratus – Hallowell 1852

IDENTIFICATION:

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Sceloporus scalaris

Juvie pointsettii
Adult, 5,000′, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

MEXICO BUNCH-GRASS LIZARD
Sceloporus scalaris – Wiegmann 1828

IDENTIFICATION:

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Sceloporus sp. “Maiz”

Juvie pointsettii
Adult Male, 5,000′, San Luis Potosi, Mexico
Juvie pointsettii
Venter of adult male

SPINY LIZARD
Sceloporus sp. –

IDENTIFICATION:

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Sceloporus sp. “La Joya”

Sceloporus_sp_Veracruz_Juv
Juvenile, 7,300′, Veracruz, Mexico

SPINY LIZARD
Sceloporus sp. –

IDENTIFICATION:

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Sceloporus formosus formosus

Sceloporus_formosus_formosus
Adult Male, 7,300′, Veracruz, Mexico
Sceloporus_formosus_formosus
Adult Female, 7,300′, Veracruz, Mexico
Sceloporus_formosus_formosus
Adult Female, 7,300′, Veracruz, Mexico
Sceloporus_formosus_formosus
Juvenile, 7,300′, Veracruz, Mexico

NORTHERN EMERALD SPINY LIZARD
Sceloporus formosus – Wiegmann 1834
Sceloporus formosus formosus – Wiegmann 1834

IDENTIFICATION:

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Crotalus lepidus morulus

TAMAULIPAS ROCK RATTLESNAKE
Crotalus lepidus – Kennicott 1861
Crotalus lepidus morulus – Klauber 1952

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Crotalus lepidus morulus Map

HABITAT:

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TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

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REFERENCES:
Campbell, J. A. and W. W. Lamar. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York, 870 pp.

Micrurus distans oliveri

Micrurus_distans_distans
Adult, 250′, Jalisco, Mexico
Micrurus_distans_distans
DOR Adult, Colima, Mexico
Micrurus_distans_distans
Venter of DOR, Colima, Mexico

OLIVER’S CORAL SNAKE
Micrurus distans – Kennicott 1860
Micrurus distans oliveri – Roze 1967

IDENTIFICATION:

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Micrurus distans distans

Micrurus_distans_distans
Adult, 800′, Sinaloa, Mexico

WEST MEXICO CORAL SNAKE
Micrurus distans – Kennicott 1860
Micrurus distans distans – Kennicott 1860

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Mazatlan
Habitat, 250′, Sinaloa, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

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TYPE:

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REFERENCES:

Micrurus tener tener

Micrurus_tener
Adult, Jim Hogg Co., Texas
Micrurus_tener
Adult, Jim Hogg Co., Texas

TEXAS CORAL SNAKE
Micrurus tener – Baird & Girard 1853
Micrurus tener tener – Baird & Girard 1853

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

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Leptotyphlops dulcis rubellum

Leptotyphlops_dulcis_rubellum
Adult, Bexar Co., Texas

SOUTH TEXAS BLIND SNAKE
Leptotyphlops dulcis – Baird & Girard 1853
Leptotyphlops dulcis rubellum –

IDENTIFICATION:

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Lampropeltis getula nigrita

Lampropeltis_getula_nigrita
DOR Adult, 1,200′, Sonora, Mexico

SONORA BLACK KINGSNAKE
Lampropeltis getula – Linnaeus 1766
Lampropeltis getula nigrita – Zweifel & Norris 1955

IDENTIFICATION:

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Alligator mississippiensis

Alligator_mississippiensis
Adult, Sea Level, Texas

AMERICAN ALLIGATOR
Alligator mississippiensis – Daudin 1802

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Alligator mississippiensis Map

HABITAT:
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Trachemys yaquia

Trachemys_yaquia
Adult, Rio Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico
Trachemys_yaquia
Same individual as above
Trachemys_yaquia
Same individual as above
Trachemys_yaquia
Plastron of above individual

YAQUI SLIDER
Trachemys yaquia – Legler & Webb 1979

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Rio_Yaqui
Upper Rio Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico (2003)

NATURAL HISTORY:

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TYPE:

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REFERENCES:

Trachemys nebulosa

Trachemys_nebulosa
Adult, Baja California Sur, Mexico (Courtesy of Serpentario de La Paz)

BAJA CALIFORNIA SLIDER
Trachemys nebulosa – Van Denburgh 1895

IDENTIFICATION:

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Sceloporus orcutti

Sceloporus_orcutti_female
Adult Female, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Sceloporus_orcutti_female
Venter of adult female

GRANITE SPINY LIZARD
Sceloporus orcutti – Stejneger 1893

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Bahia_Concepcion
Rocky oceanside habitat, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Catavina
Rocky desert habitat, 1,500′, Baja California, Mexico
Rocky  Hills
Boulder microhabitat, 1,500′, Baja California, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

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TYPE:

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Sceloporus licki

Sceloporus_licki_Male
Subadult Male, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Sceloporus_licki_Male
Venter of subadult male

CAPE SPINY LIZARD
Sceloporus licki – Van Denburgh 1895

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Thornscrub
Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Agua_Caliente_Canyon
Canyon Riparian Habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Rocky  Hills
Rocky Habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

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TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

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REFERENCES:

Sceloporus hunsakeri

Sceloporus_hunsakeri_Male
Adult, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Sceloporus_hunsakeri_Male
Venter of adult male

HUNSAKER’S SPINY LIZARD
Sceloporus hunsakeri – Hall & Smith 1979

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Agua_Caliente_Canyon
Canyon Riparian Habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Cape Region Canal
Rocky Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Boulders
Boulders in Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 400′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Boulders
Same locality as above
Rocky  Hills
Rocky Habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Habitat
Rocky Habitat, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

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REFERENCES:

Sceloporus grandaevus

ISLA CERRALVO SATOR
Sceloporus grandaevus –

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

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Sceloporus angustus

Sceloporus_angustus
Adult Male, Courtesy of the Serpentario de La Paz

ISLA SANTA CRUZ SATOR
Sceloporus angustus – Dickerson 1919

IDENTIFICATION:

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Petrosaurus mearnsi

BANDED ROCK LIZARD
Petrosaurus mearnsi – Stejneger 1894

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Petrosaurus mearnsi is found in Baja California Norte, from the US border south along the eastern face of the Sierra Juarez, through the Paso de San Matias (where it narrowly ranges into the western foothills if the Sierra San Pedro Martir) to the Sierra Las Pintas and ultimately to the Bahia de los Angeles region (the exact southern limit of its range is unknown). Isolated populations occur on Isla Miramar (Isla del Muerto) in the northern Gulf of California and on El Pedregoso, a massive rockpile along Hwy 1 south of Catavina. Elevational distribution from near sea level to around 1,200 meters.
Petrosaurus mearnsi Map

HABITAT:
This species occurs in boulder-fields, rocky canyons and rock outcrops of low to high desert habitats. It is also found in a narrow zone of chaparral and pinon-juniper woodland on the western slopes of the Sierra San Pedro Martir.
Catavina
Rocky Habitat, 1,200′, Baja California, Mexico
Bahia Canyon
Rocky Canyon habitat, 300′, Baja California, Mexico
Catavina
Rocky desert habitat, Baja California, Mexico
Rocky  Hills
Boulder microhabitat, 1,500′, Baja California, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
P. mearnsi is active from March-October. It is diurnal and almost always seen basking or foraging on boulders or rocky cliffs. At night these lizards can be found sleeping upside-down on the undersides of boulders, or within cracks on rock faces. They are insectivorous and reproduce in the spring; hatchlings appear in the late summer/early fall.

TAXONOMY:
This species is closely related to the island endemic P. slevini.

TYPE:
Described as Uta mearnsi by L. Stejneger (1894). Holotype: USNM 21882. Type locality: “Summit of Coast Range, United States and Mexican boundary line [San Diego County], California.”

PERSONAL NOTES:
I have seen this lizard on many occasions in both the Catavina region of Baja California, and throughout the desert slopes of eastern San Diego and western Imperial Counties, California. At Mortero Wash I found this species occuring very densely on granite rockpiles, and witnessed lizards foraging on the earth near the base of the piles. At Mountain Springs (I-8 grade) I often found this species asleep on the underside of boulders while I was searching for Phyllodactylus nocticolus and Xantusia henshawi.

CONSERVATION STATUS:
This species is abundant, widespread, and in no need of special protection.

REFERENCES:
Stejneger, L. 1894. Description of Uta mearnsi, a new lizard from California. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 17:589-591.
Van Denburgh, J. 1922. The reptiles of western North America. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences , Vol. 1-2:1-1028.

Petrosaurus slevini

ISLA ANGEL DE LA GUARDA ROCK LIZARD
Petrosaurus slevini – Van Denburgh 1922

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
P. slevini is endemic to Isla Angel de la Guarda and Isla Mejia in the central Gulf of California. It is found from sea level to the highest peaks of the islands.
Petrosaurus slevini Map

HABITAT:
This species is found in boulder-filled arroyos, hillsides and bajadas and rocky canyons on the islands it inhabits.
Isla_Angel
Rocky arroyo, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico
Isla_Angel
Rocky canyon habitat, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
Like P. mearnsi of the peninsula, P. slevini is active from March-October. It is diurnal and almost always seen basking or foraging on boulders or rocky cliffs. At night these lizards can be found sleeping upside-down on the undersides of boulders, or within cracks on rock faces. They are insectivorous and reproduce in the spring; hatchlings appear in the late summer/early fall.

TAXONOMY:
This island endemic is closely related to P. mearnsi found on the adjacent Peninsula.

TYPE:
Described as Uta slevini by J. Van Denburgh (1922). Holotype: CAS 50506. Type locality: Mejia Island, Gulf of California [Baja California], Mexico.

PERSONAL NOTES:
I visited Isla Angel de la Guarda in June, 2002 but was unable to find this species during our 6 hour stay.

CONSERVATION STATUS:
This species is abundant and in no need of special protection.

REFERENCES:
Van Denburgh, J. 1922. The reptiles of western North America. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences , Vol. 1-2:1-1028.

Petrosaurus repens

CENTRAL BAJA CALIFORNIA ROCK LIZARD
Petrosaurus repens – Van Denburgh 1895

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Petrosaurus repens is found from the Mesa San Carlos (Pacific Coast) south of El Rosario, east to the Sierra la Asamblea then south through the peninsula to Canyon de los Reyes, just north of La Paz, Baja California Sur. It is absent from the Viscaino Desert and Magdalena Plain regions of the western peninsula. It is also found on Isla Danzante in the Gulf of California. Elevational distribution from sea level to the high peaks of the Sierra la Asamblea and Sierra la Libertad.
Petrosaurus repens Map

HABITAT:
This wary lizard occurs in a variety of habitats, but always on large rocky structure. They may be found on lava flow escarpments, rocky cliff faces, rocky canyons, and building ruins such as Mision San Borja and Mision Santa Gertrudis.
Bahia_Concepcion
Rocky oceanside habitat, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
Grismer (2002) provides a detailed account of this species’ natural history. In the southern portion of it’s range, this species is active year-round; from roughly San Ignacio, BCS north it is generally active from March-October. Like P. thalassinus, this species often emerges from its nighttime retreats just prior to sunrise, so it may begin to thermoregulate and feed as soon as possible. While it may forage on the ground it is quick to retreat to high walls and crevices when approached. Small family groups are often found together and are generally comprised of a single adult male and several females. This species is omnivorous, with items such as Barrel Cactus and Fishhook cactus seeds (Bostic, 1971), Palo Verde flowers, leaves, and Opuntia cactus fruit (Grismer, 2002) being consumed.
Breeding takes place in the spring; eggs are layed in summer, and hatchlings first appear in late summer and early fall. Grismer states that while there is substantial latitudinal overlap between this species’ range and that of P. mearnsi, it does not occur in sympatry except at Jaraguay, BC (reported by Ottley and Murphy, 1981). An 11 km hiatus seperates the two species along the rd to Bahia de los Angeles, with P. repens being found on rock piles on the western end of the road in a cooler, higher climate.

TAXONOMY:
This species is closely related to P. thalassinus, endemic to the Cape region of Baja California Sur.

TYPE:
Described as Uta repens by J. Van Denburgh (1895). Holotype: CAS 633. Type locality: Comondu, Lower California [Baja California Sur, Mexico].

PERSONAL NOTES:
I have seen this species twice: once on a volcanic rockpile at the edge of Hwy 1 near the Chapala dry lake (south of Catavina), and also on the high rockwalls along the Gulf Coast at Canyon de los Reyes (just N of La Paz, BCS). The latter individuals were observed near a roadside shrine, and were extremely wary. Our guide attempted to noose the lizards with a 20′ long marlin fishing pole but was unable to do so. They ran effortlessly across the sheer, vertical cliff faces.

CONSERVATION STATUS:
This widespread and abundant species is in no need of any protection.

REFERENCES:
Bostic, D. L. 1971. Herpetofauna of the Pacific coast of north central Baja California, Mexico, with a description of a new subspecies of Phyllodactylus xanti. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 16:237-264.
Ottley, J. R. and R. W. Murphy. 1981. Petrosaurus thalassinus repens: Geographic distribution. Herpetological Review 12:65.
Van Denburgh, J. 1895. Review of the herpetology of Lower California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 2:77-163.

Petrosaurus thalassinus

Petrosaurus_thalassinus
Adult, 600′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Petrosaurus_thalassinus
Same individual as above

SAN LUCAN BLUE ROCK LIZARD
Petrosaurus thalassinus – Cope 1863

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
This beautiful species is found in the Sierra la Laguna (and its associated ranges) and Sierra la Trinidad of the Cape region of Baja California Sur , as well as on Islas Espiritu Santo and Partida Sur in the Gulf. Elevational distribution from sea level to 2,020 meters in the Sierra la Laguna.
Petrosaurus thalassinus Map

HABITAT:
Petrosaurus thalassinus is most often found in the immediate vicinity of rocky canyons, boulder-strewn hillsides and arroyo bottoms and sea-side cliffs. These lizards appear to be particularly common on rocks near large trees or other vegetation, and rarely seen in areas where vegetation is non-existant.
Agua_Caliente_Canyon
Canyon Riparian Habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Boulders
Boulders in Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 400′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Boulders
Same locality as above
Habitat
Site of my first Petrosaurus thalassinus observation, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
This large, diurnal lizard is extremely wary and will usually not allow a human to approach closer than several meters. They are omnivorous, consuming flowers, leaves, seeds and many varieties of insects. Grismer (2002) reports witnessing an adult male P. thalassinus “chase down, capture, kill, and eat a subadult male that climbed onto the boulder on which he was basking.” Breeding takes place in the spring; egg laying occurs in late spring and summer, and hatchlings appear in summer and early fall.

TAXONOMY:
This species is closely related to P. repens, found farther north on the Peninsula. In the past, repens was considered a subspecies of thalassinus.

TYPE:
Described as Uta thalassina by E. D. Cope (1863). Holotype: USNM 5302. Type locality: “Cape St. Lucas [Cabo San Lucas]“, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

PERSONAL NOTES:
In June, 2002 Gary Nafis and I found this species at many localities in the Cape of Baja California Sur. We found them to be abundant in Agua Caliente Canyon near Santiago, and in the boulder-strewn ravines along the highway from La Paz to San Juan de los Planes. At both localities, Sceloporus hunsakeri, Aspidoscelis maxima, Phyllodactylus unctus and Urosaurus nigricaudus were also found in abundance. My first experience with this species was extremely memorable: after arriving at our campsite the night prior, I awoke early to a very chilly morning with overcast skies. After a little birdwatching I made my way toward an isolated boulder pile as the sun began to cut through the clouds. I climbed around on the rocks, hoping to see a lizard in a crevice and upon hearing a “scuffling” noise above me, I looked up and just a few feet from my head was an enormous (close to record size I’m sure) male P. thalassinus! I stared motionless and the lizard did the same, until I moved for my camera and the wary beast ran quickly to a crack. I was struck by the fast that although the weather was cold and the sun had not yet emerged from the clouds, this lizard was substantially heated up and quite active. To this day I have not been able to approach another blue rock lizard so closely.

CONSERVATION STATUS:
This species is abundant where it occurs, and is found on several protected islands. It is in no need of special protection.

REFERENCES:
Cope, E. D. 1863. Descriptions of new American Squamata in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proceedings of the Museum of Nature and Science Philadelphia 15:100-106.

Masticophis flagellum fuliginosus

Masticophis_flagellum_fulignosus
Adult, 900′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Masticophis_flagellum_fulignosus
Same individual as above

BAJA CALIFORNIA COACHWHIP
Masticophis flagellum – Shaw 1802
Masticophis flagellum fuliginosus – Cope 1895

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Arroyo_Grande
Arroyo habitat, 900′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Bahia_Concepcion
Rocky oceanside habitat, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Thornscrub
Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Viscaino_Dunas
Habitat, 50′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Viscaino_Dunas
Habitat, 50′, Baja California, Mexico
Cape Region Canal
Canal in Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Lichanura trivirgata trivirgata

Lichanura_trivirgata_trivirgata
Adult, 200′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Lichanura_trivirgata_trivirgata
Close-up of head

MEXICO ROSY BOA
Lichanura trivirgata – Cope 1861
Lichanura trivirgata trivirgata – Cope 1861

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Boulders
Boulders in Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 400′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Boulders
Same locality as above
Bahia_Concepcion
Rocky oceanside habitat, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Bahia_San_Carlos
Habitat, 100′, Sonora, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Ensatina eschscholtzii eschscholtzii

MONTERREY ENSATINA
Ensatina eschscholtzii – Gray 1850
Ensatina eschscholtzii eschscholtzii – Gray 1850

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

In Baja California, this species has only been recorded as far south as La Mision (near Ensenada). It probably occurs farther south in the foothills of the Sierra Juarez and possibly even into the foothills of the Sierra San Pedro Marti­r. In either mountain range it’s upper elevational distribution may closely approach that of the closely related E. klauberi.
Ensatina e eschscholtzii Map

HABITAT:
chaparral
Chaparral/Oak Habitat, 2,500′, San Diego County, California

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:

I have never seen this salamander in Mexico. In San Diego County, California I found several individuals on rainy nights while crossing roads through Chaparral and Oak Woodland habitats.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Ensatina klauberi

Ensatina_klauberi
Orange-Phase Adult, 4,500′, San Diego Co., California
Albino_klauberi
Albino Adult, 4,500′, San Diego Co., California

LARGE-BLOTCHED ENSATINA
Ensatina klauberi – Dunn 1929

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

In Mexico, Ensatina klauberi is found at high (and possibly mid elevations) in the Sierra San Pedro Marti­r and Sierra Juarez of northern Baja California.
Ensatina klauberi Map

HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:

I have no experience with E. klauberi in Mexico. In San Diego County, California I have seen several individuals at night during periods of rain – both on the road and amongst leaf-litter on the forest floor. On Mount Palomar I found six Large-blotched Ensatina active on the forest floor during a light and unexpected snowfall.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Dipsosaurus dorsalis

Dipsosaurus dorsalis sonoriensis
Adult Male, 281′, Sonora, Mexico

DESERT IGUANA
Dipsosaurus dorsalis – Baird & Girard 1852

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:

Crotaphytus dickersonae habitat
Habitat, 281′, Sonora, Mexico
Isla_Carmen
Desert scrub habitat, 50′, Isla Carmen, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Isla_Carmen
Oceanside habitat, Isla Carmen, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Bahia de los Angeles Ocean View
Rocky Beach Habitat, 0′, Baja California, Mexico
Viscaino_Dunas
Habitat, 50′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Arroyo_Grande
Arroyo habitat, 900′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Arroyo
Sandy Arroyo microhabitat, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Crotaphytus antiquus

VENERABLE COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus antiquus – Axtell & Webb 1995

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Crotaphytus antiquus is known only from three small mountain ranges in the Mayran (AKA Parras) Basin in the vicinity of Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico. These are the Sierra Solis, Sierra Texas and Sierra San Lorenzo.
Crotaphytus_antiquus_Map

HABITAT:
Crotaphytus antiquus occurs on the lower slopes of several extremely dry desert ranges. The desert is described as Chihuahuan and has essentially the same flora as the region around El Paso, Texas. Creosote is a common plant where this species occurs.
NATURAL HISTORY:
This species is saxicolous and is most often observed perched on rocks and rock outcrops. Male and female Crotaphytus antiquus display their breeding coloration in May and early June. Smaller lizards are a large part of the diet of most Crotaphytus, and the Venerable Collared Lizard is probably no exception. This species will bask during the heat of the day in temperatures that are too extreme for other lizards. Other species of lizard found in the habitat of C. antiquus are Sceloporus cyanostictus, Holbrookia maculata, Cophosaurus texanus, Aspidoscelis marmoratus variolosus, and Phrynosoma modestum. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
This species is closely related to Crotaphytus reticulatus.
TYPE:
Described as Crotaphytus antiquus by Axtell and Webb (1995). Holotype: UTEP 15900. Type locality: 2.1 km N, 1.6 km E Vizcaya (25 46′ 04″N, 103 11′ 48″W, el 1100 m) in the Sierra Texas, Coahuila, Mexico. An adult male collected on 22 June 1978 by Eric C. Axtell and Ralph W. Axtell.

PERSONAL NOTES:
In July, 2007 Troy Hibbits and I visited the Sierra San Lorenzo to search for this species; we found a juvenile male, a spectacular adult male and an adult female C. antiquus on the lower slopes of the range. The juvenile was basking on the top of a boulder on the edge of a small draw while the adult male was flushed from beneath some thick brush where it had been concealed until our approach. The adult female was basking on a large rock and unlike the other two lizards, was extremely wary. We also observed many Sceloporus cyanostictus and several Cophosaurus texanus.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
The existance of Crotaphytus antiquus was kept a secret for many years after it’s discovery; the authors of the original description felt that “conservation by silence” was the best route to take at first. This species does have a very small natural range and could potentially be susceptible to overcollection. Fortunately, due to the isolation and arid nature of this species’ habitat, overcollection appears to be the only immediate threat to it’s existance. This species is probably not being collected except by permitted researchers, and then only in very limited numbers.
REFERENCES:
Axtell, R. W. and Webb, R. G. 1995. Two New Crotaphytus from Southern Coahuila and the Adjacent States of East-Central Mexico. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16(2):1-15.

Crotalus catalinensis

Crotalus_catalinensis
Adult, courtesy of the Serpentario de La Paz

ISLA SANTA CATALINA RATTLESNAKE
Crotalus catalinensis – Cliff 1954

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Crotalus catalinensis Map

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:
Campbell, J. A. and W. W. Lamar. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York, 870 pp.

Crotalus ruber ruber

RED DIAMONDBACK RATTLESNAKE
Crotalus ruber – Cope 1892
Crotalus ruber ruber – Cope 1892

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Crotalus ruber ruber Map

HABITAT:
Isla_Angel
Rocky arroyo, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico
Isla_Angel
Rocky canyon habitat, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico
Catavina
Rocky desert habitat, Baja California, Mexico
Bahia_Concepcion
Rocky oceanside habitat, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:
Campbell, J. A. and W. W. Lamar. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York, 870 pp.

Crotalus ruber lucasensis

Crotalus_ruber_lucasensis
Adult, 1,000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico

SAN LUCAN DIAMONDBACK RATTLESNAKE
Crotalus ruber – Cope 1892
Crotalus ruber lucasensis – Van Denburgh 1920

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Crotalus ruber lucasensis Map

HABITAT:
Boulders
Boulders in Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 400′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Boulders
Same locality as above
Thornscrub
Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Agua_Caliente_Canyon
Canyon Riparian Habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Rocky  Hills
Rocky Habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Cape Region Canal
Canal in Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:
Campbell, J. A. and W. W. Lamar. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York, 870 pp.

Crotalus angelensis

Crotalus_angelensis
Adult, shore of Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico
Crotalus_angelensis
Same individual as above

ISLA ANGEL DE LA GUARDA RATTLESNAKE
Crotalus angelensis – Klauber 1963

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:
Crotalus angelensis Map

HABITAT:
Isla_Angel
Rocky arroyo, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico
Isla_Angel
Rocky canyon habitat, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:
Campbell, J. A. and W. W. Lamar. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York, 870 pp.

Chilomeniscus stramineus

Chilomeniscus_stramineus
Adult patternless morph, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Chilomeniscus_stramineus
Adult banded morph, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Chilomeniscus_stramineus
Both phases together; courtesy of Serpentario de La Paz

BAJA CALIFORNIA SAND SNAKE
Chilomeniscus stramineus – Cope 1860

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:
Viscaino_Dunas
Habitat, 50′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Dunas
Coastal Dune habitat, Baja California, Mexico
Thornscrub
Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Arroyo_Grande
Arroyo habitat, 900′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Catavina
Rocky desert habitat, Baja California, Mexico
Agua_Caliente_Canyon
Canyon Riparian Habitat, 800′, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Callisaurus draconoides draconoides

COMMON ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides draconoides – Blainville 1835

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:

Arroyo
Sandy Arroyo microhabitat, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Thornscrub
Tropical Thornscrub habitat, 1000′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Catavina
Rocky desert habitat, Baja California, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Heloderma horridum alvarezi

BLACK BEADED LIZARD
Heloderma horridum – Wiegmann 1829
Heloderma horridum alvarezi -Bogert & Martin del Campo 1956

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Heloderma horridum exasperatum

RIO FUERTE BEADED LIZARD
Heloderma horridum – Wiegmann 1829
Heloderma horridum exasperatum -Bogert & Martin del Campo 1956

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Crotaphytus collaris baileyi

WESTERN COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus collaris – Say in James 1823
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi – Stejneger 1890

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

In Sonora, Mexico the range of this species and Crotaphytus nebrius closely approach one-another but do not overlap.
Crotaphytus_collaris_baileyi_Map

HABITAT:
This lizard inhabits both Sonoran upland and high desert sites, generally where rocks are present. It is most common on alluvial fans and the lower slopes of ridges and Madrean sky island ranges.
NATURAL HISTORY:
This species is saxicolous and is most often observed perched on rocks and rock outcrops. Male and female Crotaphytus collaris baileyi display their breeding coloration in May and early June. Smaller lizards are a large part of the diet of Crotaphytus collaris. This species will bask during the heat of the day in temperatures that are too extreme for other lizards. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
Some authors suggest that Crotaphytus collaris is a highly variable species with several pattern classes, but none of the various forms are sufficiently distinct enough to warrant recognition. I chose to retain use of the subspecific names until further notice.
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:

I have seen this subspecies on many occasions, but have never looked for it in Mexico. Close to the Mexico border I have commonly seen this lizard basking on small rocks along roads leading in to the Santa Rita Mountains of Santa Cruz County, Arizona.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
Crotaphytus collaris is common, widespread and in no need of protection.
REFERENCES:

Callisaurus draconoides bogerti

SINALOA ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides bogerti – Martin del Campo 1943

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Leptophis diplotropis forreri

FORRER’S PARROT SNAKE
Leptophis diplotropis – Gunther 1872
Leptophis diplotropis forreri – Smith 1943

IDENTIFICATION:

DISTRIBUTION:

HABITAT:

NATURAL HISTORY:

TAXONOMY:

TYPE:

PERSONAL NOTES:

CONSERVATION STATUS:

REFERENCES:

Crotaphytus collaris fuscus

CHIHUAHUA COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus collaris – Say 1823
Crotaphytus collaris fuscus – Ingram & Tanner 1971

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Crotaphytus_collaris_fuscus_Map

HABITAT:
Hidalgo_County
Rocky Grassland Habitat, Hidalgo Co., New Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
This species is saxicolus and is most often observed perched on rocks and rock outcrops. Male and female Crotaphytus collaris fuscus display their breeding coloration in May and early June. Smaller lizards are a large part of the diet of Crotaphytus collaris. This species will bask during the heat of the day in temperatures that are too extreme for other lizards. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
Some authors suggest that Crotaphytus collaris is a highly variable species with several pattern classes, but none of the various forms are sufficiently distinct enough to warrant recognition. I chose to retain use of the subspecific names until further notice.
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:

I have seen the fuscus subspecies on several occasions, all in either Cochise County, Arizona or Hidalgo County, New Mexico. I have never looked for it in Mexico. At the two localities in which I have viewed this subspecies, it occurred on rocks of ancient lava flows in Chihuahuan Grassland habitat. Other lizards common at these sites are Urosaurus ornatus (preyed upon by Crotaphytus), Sceloporus poinsetti, and Phrynosoma cornutum.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
Crotaphytus collaris is common, widespread and in no need of protection.
REFERENCES:

Callisaurus draconoides brevipes

Callisaurus_draconoides_brevipes
Adult Male, 1,800′, Sonora, Mexico
Callisaurus_draconoides_brevipes
Venter of male

SHORT-FOOTED ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides brevipes – Bogert & Dorson 1942

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Heloderma suspectum suspectum

RETICULATE GILA MONSTER
Heloderma suspectum – Cope 1869
Heloderma suspectum suspectum – Cope 1869

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Duellmanohyla chamulae

CHAMULA MOUNTAIN STREAM FROG
Duellmanohyla chamulae – Duellman 1961

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Duellmanohyla chamulae Map

HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
I have no experience with this species.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Faivovich, J., C. F. B. Haddad, P. C. A. Garcia, D. R. Frost, J. A. Campbell, and W. C. Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294:1-240.

Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus

Crotaphytus_collaris_melanomaculatus
Adult Female, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

BLACK-SPOTTED COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus collaris – Say in James 1823
Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus – Axtell & Webb 1995

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus occurs from northeast Durango eastward through southern Coahuila, northern Zacatecas, southern Nuevo Leon, central and north-central San Luis Potosi and extreme southwest Tamaulipas. In Tamaulipas, this lizard is found in the Municipios of Tula, Palmillas, Bustamante and Miquihuana.
Crotaphytus_collaris_melanomaculatus_Map

HABITAT:
This lizard inhabits both upland and low desert sites, generally where rocks are present. It is most common on alluvial fans and the lower slopes of ridges and mountain ranges.
NATURAL HISTORY:
This species is saxicolus and is most often observed perched on rocks and rock outcrops. Male and female Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus display their breeding coloration in May and early June. Smaller lizards are a large part of the diet of Crotaphytus collaris. This species will bask during the heat of the day in temperatures that are too extreme for other lizards. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
Some authors suggest that Crotaphytus collaris is a highly variable species with several pattern classes, but none of the various forms are sufficiently distinct enough to warrant recognition. I chose to retain use of the subspecific names until further notice.
TYPE:
Described as Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus by Axtell and Webb (1995). Holotype: UTEP 15915. Type locality: 3.8 km S, 1.7 km E Graseros on the highway to Presa Francisco Zarca, el 1250 m, Durango, Mexico (25 14′ 10″N, 103 47′W). An adult male collected by Eric C. Axtell on 6 July 1982.
PERSONAL NOTES:
I have seen this species on two occasions; the first was along San Luis Potosi Hwy 80 in the vicinity of Presa de Guadalupe in May 2003 where I found the above-pictured individual. When I approached her she flattened against the ground and lay motionless while I took several pictures. I had to prod her before she would take flight, but when she did it was using bipedal movement (my first experience with such behavior).
I also found this subspecies in the desert hills near Tula, Tamaulipas in August 2004. A single male was observed basking on a limestone outcrop above a small wash. Other lizards found at this locality were Sceloporus spinosus spinosus, Cophosaurus texanus, Phrynosoma modestum, Aspidoscelis colossus, Aspidoscelis inornata inornata and a single Anelytropsis papillosus.
In September, 2007 W. Farr and I sought to fill in the known distribution of this lizard in Tamaulipas; we found it abundant in the Municipios of Tula, Bustamante and Miquihuana (it was previously known from only Tula and Palmillas). We found Sceloporus cautus, S. spinosus, S. parvus, Cophosaurus texanus, Aspidoscelis colossus and Aspidoscelis inornata inornata in association with this species. We found one adult male in the Municipio de Tula that exceeded the previous maximum size record for this species by a small margin.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
This form of the Western Collared Lizard is in no danger of large or small-scale population declines; it is not protected except by general Mexican Law.
REFERENCES:
Axtell, R. W. and Webb, R. G. 1995. Two New Crotaphytus from Southern Coahuila and the Adjacent States of East-Central Mexico. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16(2):1-15.

Callisaurus draconoides carmenensis

ISLA CARMEN ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides carmenensis – Dickerson 1919

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:

Isla_Carmen
Desert scrub habitat, 50′, Isla Carmen, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Isla_Carmen
Oceanside habitat, Isla Carmen, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Duellmanohyla ignicolor

SIERRA JUAREZ MOUNTAIN STREAM FROG
Duellmanohyla ignicolor – Duellman 1961

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Duellmanohyla ignicolor Map

HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
I have no experience with this species.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:
Faivovich, J., C. F. B. Haddad, P. C. A. Garcia, D. R. Frost, J. A. Campbell, and W. C. Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294:1-240.
Lips, K. R., J. R. Mendelson 3rd, A. Munoz-Alonso, L. Canseco-Marquez and D. G. Mulcahy. 2004. Amphibian population declines in montane southern Mexico: resurveys of historical localities. Biological Conservation 119(2004):555-564.

Crotaphytus dickersonae

Crotaphytus dickersonae
Adult male, 200′, Sonora, Mexico
Male
Adult male, 200′, Sonora, Mexico
Male
Adult male, 200′, Sonora, Mexico
Male
Adult male, 200′, Sonora, Mexico
venter
Venter of adult male, 200′, Sonora, Mexico
Female
Female showing gravid coloration, 200′, Sonora, Mexico
Crotaphytus dickersonae subadult male
Subadult male, 200′, Sonora, Mexico
juv
Juvenile male, 200′, Sonora, Mexico

DICKERSON’S COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus dickersonae – Schmidt 1922

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

This colorful species is found only in a narrow band of rocky hills along the coast of Sonora, Mexico from the town of El Desemboque south to Bahia Kino Nuevo; it is also found on Isla Tiburon in the Gulf of California. They are found from near sea level to the highest peaks of these hills, which are just a few hundred meters in elevation.
Crotaphytus_dickersonae_Map

HABITAT:
This lizard inhabits Sonoran upland and rocky coastal desert sites. It is most common on the low-mid rocky slopes of ridges and hills.
Crotaphytus dickersonae habitat
Habitat, 200′, Sonora, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
This species is saxicolous and is most often observed perched on rocks and rock outcrops. Male and female Crotaphytus dickersonae display their breeding coloration in April, and females are thought to lay their eggs in May and June. Smaller lizards are a large part of the diet of Crotaphytus dickersonae. This species will bask during the heat of the day in temperatures that are too extreme for other lizards. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
In the Crotaphytus collaris species group, its closest relatives are C. collaris and C. nebrius.
TYPE:
Described as Crotaphytus dickersonae by K. P. Schmidt (1922). Holotype: USNM 64451. Type locality: Tiburon Island, Sonora, Mexico.
PERSONAL NOTES:
I found C. dickersonae in 2004 and 2005 at the same locality in coastal Sonora, Mexico. Males seemed to outnumber females by a large margin, but this may have been due to the activity patterns of the sexes. Males basked on open boulders and were ubiquitous due to their gawdy coloration, while the few females we found were often flushed from terrestrial locations beneath large bushes and cactus patches. Other species of reptiles I observed here are: Dipsosaurus dorsalis sonoriensis, Aspidoscelis tigris ssp., Salvadora hexalepis hexalepis, and Masticophis bilineatus.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
This species is abundant and needs no special protection.
REFERENCES:

Callisaurus draconoides crinitus

Callisaurus_draconoides_crinitus
Adult, Sea Level, Baja California Sur, Mexico

VISCAINO ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides crinitus – Cope 1896

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
HABITAT:

Viscaino_Dunas
Habitat, 50′, Baja California Sur, Mexico
Viscaino_Dunas
Habitat, 50′, Baja California, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Duellmanohyla schmidtorum

SCHMIDT’S MOUNTAIN STREAM FROG
Duellmanohyla schmidtorum – Stuart 1954

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Duellmanohyla schmidtorum Map

HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:
I have no experience with this species with the possible exception of finding larvae in the Cerro Baul region of Oaxaca in 2005.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
REFERENCES:

Faivovich, J., C. F. B. Haddad, P. C. A. Garcia, D. R. Frost, J. A. Campbell, and W. C. Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294:1-240.

Crotaphytus grismeri

SIERRA LOS CUCAPAS COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus grismeri – McGuire 1994

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

This newly described species is only found at a few localities in the Sierra los Cucapas and Sierra el Mayor of northeast Baja California Norte, Mexico. Elevational distribution from 50-250 meters.
Crotaphytus_grismeri_Map

HABITAT:
C. grismeri is most often observed on or around rocky slopes, canyons, ridges, and among rocky rubble at the base of hills. Its habitat is especially hot and dry.
NATURAL HISTORY:
This species is saxicolous and is most often observed perched on rocks and rock outcrops between the months of March and September. Male and female Crotaphytus grismeri display their breeding coloration in April and May and lay eggs from May to September. Smaller lizards are a large part of the diet of most Crotaphytus, and the this species is no exception. C. grismeri will bask during the heat of the day in temperatures that are too extreme for some other lizards. Sympatric species of lizard found in the habitat of C. grismeri are Dipsosaurus dorsalis, Uta stansburiana, and Aspidoscelis tigris. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
This species is in the C. bicinctores species group and is cloesly related to C. bicinctores, C. vestigium and C. insularis.
TYPE:
Described as Crotaphytus grismeri by J. McGuire (1994). Holotype: CES 067-629. Type locality: East face of the Sierra de los Cucapas, approximately 50 km south of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico.
PERSONAL NOTES:
I looked for this species once, with no success, south of Mexicali on the east slope of the Sierra el Mayor. We saw only Uta stansburiana and Dipsosaurus dorsalis.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
While this species has the smallest natural range of any member of the Genus, it is not in danger of local population decline because of the arid nature of its habitat, and the apparent lack of collecting interest.
REFERENCES:

Callisaurus draconoides inusitatus

Callisaurus_d_inusitatus
Adult, 20′, Sonora, Mexico

SONORA ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides inusitatus – Dickerson 1919

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
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Bahia Kino
Habitat, 200′, Sonora, Mexico

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Crotaphytus insularis

Crotaphytus_insularis
Adult, 400′, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico

ISLA ANGEL DE LA GUARDA COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus insularis – Van Denburgh & Slevin 1921

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

This species is found only on Isla Angel de la Guarda, a large island off the coast of Baja California Norte in the Gulf of California, Mexico.
Crotaphytus_insularis_Map

HABITAT:
Isla_Angel
Rocky arroyo habitat, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
This species is saxicolous and is most often observed perched on rocks and rock outcrops. Male and female Crotaphytus insularis display their breeding coloration in April and early May, and lay eggs from June through September. Smaller lizards are a large part of the diet of Crotaphytus insularis, but insects and even some plant material are also consumed. This species will bask during the heat of the day in temperatures that are too extreme for other lizards. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
In the C. bicinctores species group, it is related to C. bicinctores, C. grismeri and C. vestigium.
TYPE:
Described as Crotaphytus insularis by J. Van Denburgh and J. L. Slevin (1921). Holotype: CAS 49151. Type locality: East coast of Angel de la Guarda Island 7 mi N of Pond Island, Gulf of California (Baja California), Mexico.
PERSONAL NOTES:
I found this species in June, 2002 in an arroyo on the west side of Isla Angel de la Guarda. It was basking on large volcanic rocks during the mid-day heat. Other species observed in the arroyo were Sauromalus hispidus, Callisaurus draconoides splendidus, Aspidoscelis tigris disparilis, Uta stansburiana and Crotalus angelensis.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
This species is in no need of special protection.
REFERENCES:

Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus

MOJAVE ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus – Cope 1896

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Crotaphytus nebrius

SONORA COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus nebrius – Axtell & Montanucchi 1977

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Crotaphytus_nebrius_Map

HABITAT:
Bahia_San_Carlos
Habitat, 100′, Sonora, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
TAXONOMY:
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:

I have seen C. nebrius in the vicinity of Ajo, Arizona in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. In July, 2003 Chris Gruenwald and I found an adult male in the vicinity of the Rio Yaqui just N of Sahuaripa, Sonora. It was basking on a large rock in an open area above the bridge.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
This species is widespread and common where it occurs, and does not need special protection.
REFERENCES:

Callisaurus draconoides splendidus

ISLA ANGEL DE LA GUARDA ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides splendidus – Dickerson 1919

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:
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Isla_Angel
Rocky arroyo, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Baja California, Mexico

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Crotaphytus reticulatus

RETICULATE COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus reticulatus – Baird 1858

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

Crotaphytus_reticulatus_Map

HABITAT:
NATURAL HISTORY:

Unlike other species of Crotaphytus, this lizard spends the majority of its time on bare earth; however, it will bask on small limestone rocks and associated formations when available. It is largely insectivorous but also consumes smaller lizards with vigor. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
This species is closely related to C. antiquus of southern Coahuila.
TYPE:
PERSONAL NOTES:

I finally found this species in September, 2007 while traveling with W. Farr in Tamaulipas, Mexico. I spotted a single female basking on a roadside rock along a dirt track south of Reynosa. Sceloporus variabilis was also common on these rocks. This female represents the farthest south this species has ever been recorded.
CONSERVATION STATUS:
This species is in no need of protection. Some habitat modification in Tamaulipas has destroyed reticulatus habitat, but this appears to threaten only a small portion of the population.
REFERENCES:
Axtell, R. W. and Webb, R. G. 1995. Two New Crotaphytus from Southern Coahuila and the Adjacent States of East-Central Mexico. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16(2):1-15.

Callisaurus draconoides ventralis

ARIZONA ZEBRA-TAILED LIZARD
Callisaurus draconoides – Blainville 1835
Callisaurus draconoides ventralis – Hallowell 1852

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Crotaphytus vestigium

BAJA CALIFORNIA COLLARED LIZARD
Crotaphytus vestigium – Smith & Tanner 1972

IDENTIFICATION:
DISTRIBUTION:

This species is found from the US border south to at least San Jose Comondu, Baja California Sur. Largely this distribution lies to the east of the Sierra de Juarez and Sierra San Pedro Martir but it also occurs in a narrow band of the pacific San Pedro Martir foothills from Mesa San Carlos to Arroyo San Antonio (Rancho San Jose). An apparently isolated pacific population occurs on Tecate Peak, on the US/Mexico border. Along the Gulf of California coast, C. vestigium occurs as far south as Bahia Concepcion; seemingly suitable habitat extends south of this point but strangely, no Crotaphytus have ever been found there.
Crotaphytus_vestigium_Map

HABITAT:
C. vestigium occurs in a variety of habitats with a common denominator: rock. It is occasionally found foraging on the open earth in the vicinity of rock structure, but retreats to it when threatened.
Bahia_Concepcion
Rocky oceanside habitat, Baja California Sur, Mexico

NATURAL HISTORY:
This species is saxicolous and is most often observed perched on rocks and rock outcrops. Male and female Crotaphytus vestigium display their breeding coloration in April and early May. Smaller lizards are a large part of the diet of Crotaphytus vestigium, but it is also insectivorous. This species will bask during the heat of the day in temperatures that are too extreme for other lizards. When frightened, collared lizards have the ability to run on their hind legs (bipedal motion) for short distances.
TAXONOMY:
In the C. bicinctores species group, it is related to C. bicinctores, C. insularis, and C. grismeri.
TYPE:
Described as Crotaphytus insularis vestigium by H. M. Smith and W. W. Tanner (1972). Holotype: BYU 23338. Type locality: Guadalupe Canyon, Juarez Mountains, Baja California, Mexico.
PERSONAL NOTES:
In Baja California Sur, I found this lizard basking on rocks along Hwy 1 just west of San Ignacio (June, 2002).
CONSERVATION STATUS:
This species is abundant, widespread and in no need of protection.
REFERENCES:

Ophisaurus ceroni

CERON’S GLASS LIZARD
Ophisaurus ceroni – Holman 1965

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Notophthalmus meridionalis meridionalis

NORTHERN BLACK-SPOTTED NEWT
Notophthalmus meridionalis – Cope 1880
Notophthalmus meridionalis meridionalis – Cope 1880

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Lineatriton lineolus

VERACRUZ WORM SALAMANDER
Lineatriton lineolus – Cope 1865

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Lineatriton lineolus Map

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Ixalotriton niger

BLACK JUMPING SALAMANDER
Ixalotriton niger – Wake & Johnson 1989

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Ixalotriton niger Map

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Cophosaurus texanus texanus

Cophosaurus texanus
Adult, 1,400′, Tamaulipas, Mexico

TEXAS EARLESS LIZARD
Cophosaurus texanus – Troschel 1850
Cophosaurus texanus texanus – Troschel 1850

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Chihuahuan Desert
Chihuahua Desert Habitat, 1,400′, Tamaulipas, Mexico

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Ophisaurus incomptus

PLAIN-NECKED GLASS LIZARD
Ophisaurus incomptus – McConkey 1955

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Mabuya unimarginata

CENTRAL AMERICA MABUYA
Mabuya unimarginata – Cope 1862

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